Ten years since 9/11



2011 marks the 10th year anniversary of the tragic events of September 11, 2001 - an event that reshaped the course of history for America, and indeed the world. A lot has happened in ten years since 9/11 as we re-examined ourselves as a nation. Also, we have reflected on ourselves as individuals, neighbors, members of a local community, and indeed residents and citizens of a great country.

President of the U.S. and Mayor of New York City during 9/11

President George W. Bush, 43rd President during 9/11

Mayor Rudy Giuliani, New York City Mayor during 9/11

George W. Bush (43rd President, U.S.)

Rudy Giuliani (107th Mayor, NYC)

Beginning with the events on September 11, 2001, the following is an outline of some key milestone events that have occurred over the past decade as a direct or indirect consequence of the events of 9/11:

September 11, 2001 - The United states was attacked in a coordinated assault involving four hijacked U.S. commercial airplanes by a group of terrorists. One of the four airplanes (American Airlines Flight 11) is flown into the North tower of the World Trade Center, a second (United Airlines Flight 175) is flown soon after into the South tower, a third (American Airlines Flight 77) is flown into the West wall of the U.S. Pentagon building, while the fourth (United Airlines Flight 93) crashes in a field in rural Pennsylvania (near Shanksville) as a result of intervention by several heroic passengers aboard. President George W. Bush is notified of the attacks. The World Trade Center towers subsequently collapse before a national audience. Over 3,000 people are killed in the combined attacks.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - First year after 9/11

September 13, 2001 - The The White House announces that there is "overwhelming evidence" that Osama Bin Laden is behind the terrorist attacks.

September 14, 2001 - The U.S. Congress authorizes President George W. Bush to use "all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons."

September 16, 2001 - Osama Bin Laden denies any involvement in the 9/11 attacks in a statement to Al Jazeera television.

September 20, 2001In an address to a joint session of Congress, President Bush declares boldly, "Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime."

October 2, 2001 - The USA Patriot Act is introduced in Congress.

October 5, 2001 - A photographer for the tabloid newspaper, The Sun, dies due to inhalation of anthrax spores in Boca Raton, Florida. Over the next several weeks, along with several false alarms, four other letters containing anthrax are received, by NBC News, the New York Post, Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle (D-SD) and Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT). Eleven people are infected and five people die.

October 7, 2001 - The war in Afghanistan begins with the launch of Operation Enduring Freedom, targeting al Qaeda terrorist training camps and military installations of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The war campaign is led by the U.S. military along with armed forces of the United Kingdom and the Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance) with the stated goal of dismantling the Al Qaeda terrorist organization and ending its use of Afghanistan as a base.

October 24, 2001 - The U.S. House of Representatives passes the final version of the USA Patriot Act.

October 26, 2001 - President George W. Bush signs the USA Patriot Act into law.

December 11, 2001 - Zacarias Moussaoui becomes the first suspect in the 9/11 attacks indicted on charges of conspiring with Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda to murder thousands of people.

December 22, 2001 - British citizen Richard Reid is arrested for trying to blow up a Miami-bound jet using explosives hidden in his shoe. He became known as the shoe bomber.

January 1, 2002 - Michael Bloomberg becomes (108th) Mayor of New York City. Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City Mayor

March 28, 2002 - Abu Zubayda, a key al Qaeda operative, is captured in Pakistan. He identifies Khalid Shaikh Mohammed as the mastermind behind the attacks on 9/11.

June 24, 2002 - H. R. 5005 (Homeland Security Bill) is introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Second year after 9/11

September 11, 2002 - Ramzi Binalshibh, a key al Qaeda operative, is captured in Pakistan. He is identified as playing a significant role in the planning of the attacks on 9/11.

September 28, 2002 - The U.S. and Britain present a jointly-drafted resolution to the other permanent members of the U.N. Security Council that seeks to authorize the use of military action against Iraq in the event that Saddam's regime fails to comply with the new demands outlined in the draft resolution.

October 11, 2002 - Congress passes a joint resolution authorizing President George W. Bush to use military force against Iraq.

November 25, 2002 - The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is established by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (which began as H. R. 5005) signed into law by President George W. Bush. The new Department incorporates and consolidates 22 individual agencies that previously reported into other Departments.

March 1, 2003 - Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (KSM), al Qaeda's operations chief and alleged mastermind behind the 9/11 attacks, is captured alive in Pakistan.

March 18, 2003 - President George W. Bush gives Saddam Hussein 48 hours to leave Iraq, saying that if he does not comply, the U.S. will begin military action "at a time of our choosing."

March 20, 2003 - President George W. Bush announces that he has ordered the coalition to launch an "attack of opportunity" against specified targets in Iraq. This comes 90 minutes after the 48-hour deadline expires. Soon after, troops from the United States, Britain, Australia, and Poland invade Iraq.

July 8, 2003 - U.S. Army General Tommy Franks (four-star) officially retires after 36 years of distinguished service in the U.S. military, most recently as head of U.S. Central Command leading Operation Enduring Freedom (in Afghanistan) and Operation Iraqi Freedom. General Franks' successor (at Central Command) will be four-star Army General John Abizaid.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Third year after 9/11

December 13, 2003U.S. 4th Infantry Division captures Saddam Hussein in Adwar, a small Iraqi village.

January 17, 2004The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 500.

July 22, 2004The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, releases its final report -- The 9/11 Commission Report. The bipartisan commission was created in late 2002 by a law signed by President George W. Bush.

September 7, 2004 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 1,000.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Fourth year after 9/11

October 9, 2004 - Hamid Karzai wins the election to the office of the President of Afghanistan with 55.4% of the votes and three times more votes than any other candidate. The election is the first presidential election since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001.

October 29, 2004 - Osama Bin Laden releases a videotape claiming responsibility for the attacks of September 11 and pledges more attacks.

January 12, 2005 - The search for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq is declared over.

January 30, 2005Iraqis hold their first free (general) elections to choose members of a 275-person transitional National Assembly in over 50 years. The primary task of the transitional Assembly will be to draft a new Iraqi constitution.

March 3, 2005 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 1,500. The casualty figure begins to take its toll on the American people.

July 7, 2005London (England) becomes the victim of a terrorist attack on their transportation system. Four suicide bombers killed 52 people and wounded at least 700 others.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Fifth year after 9/11

October 15, 2005Iraqis vote in landmark referendum to approve a newly drafted constitution.

October 26, 2005 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 2,000.

November 15, 2005 - The U.S. Senate votes 79-19 to demand regular reports from the White House on progress towards a phased pullout of troops from Iraq.

December 15, 2005Iraqis hold general elections to choose the 275 members of its National Assembly under its newly ratified constitution.

January 19, 2006 - Osama Bin Laden releases a video tape offering a truce to the United States if they pull out of Iraq, and also claiming that if the U.S. did not pull out, a new wave of terrorist attacks would begin.

March 2006 - Work officially begins on the National September 11 Memorial and Museum in New York City.

June 8, 2006 - The leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is killed during a U.S. air raid.

June 11, 2006 - The 9/11 Memorial Wall is dedicated by a New York City law firm in honor of the New York City Fire Department.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Sixth year after 9/11

November 5, 2006 - Saddam Hussein is sentenced to death by hanging by an Iraqi court. He is found guilty of crimes against humanity for the 1982 killing of 148 Shiites in the city of Dujall.

December 30, 2006 - Saddam Hussein is executed by hanging in Iraq.

January 3, 2007 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 3,000.

January 10, 2007 - President George W. Bush announces a troop surge in Iraq, in pursuit of a refined strategy to win, bringing U.S. troop levels to its highest to date.

January 26, 2007 - The White House "authorizes the U.S. military to kill or capture Iranians who are believed to be working with Iraqi militias."

April 26, 2007 - The U.S. Senate approves Iraq Withdrawal bill.

May 1, 2007 - President George W. Bush vetoes Congressional plan for withdrawal from Iraq.

June 7, 2007 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 3,500.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Seventh year after 9/11

April 8, 2008 - Speaking before the U.S. Congress, General David Patraeus urges delaying troop withdrawals from Iraq.

August 24, 2008 - New York City firefighters donate a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center and mount it on top of a platform shaped like the Pentagon at Shanksville, Pennsylvania, outside a firehouse just a few miles from the field where United Airlines Flight 93 (the fourth hijacked airplane on 9/11) crashed into the ground.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Eighth year after 9/11

September 11, 2008 - The National Pentagon 9/11 Memorial is completed and opened to the public.  It consists of a landscaped park with 184 benches facing the Pentagon. Each bench represents a person who died at the Pentagon when one of the hijacked airplanes struck the West wall of the building on 9/11.

January 1, 2009 - The United States hands control of the Green Zone and Saddam Hussein's presidential palace to the Iraqi government.

January 20, 2009 - President Barack H. Obama is inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States and the new Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Armed Forces.

President Barack Obama - 44th President of the U.S.

August 20, 2009 - President Hamid Karzai wins re-election as millions of Afghans go to the polls for the nation's second presidential election since the fall of the Taliban in 2001.

August 24, 2009 - The first museum artifact is moved from conservation to the 9/11 Memorial Museum when the 36-foot steel-beam fragment, called the "Last Column," is returned to the World Trade Center Site for permanent installation in the 9/11 Memorial Museum.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Ninth year after 9/11

November 5, 2009 - A U.S. Army psychiatrist of Palestinian descent, Major Nidal Malik Hasan, goes on a shooting rampage at Fort Hood, Texas killing 13 people and wounding at least 38 others.

November 7, 2009 - Construction begins on a new National Memorial at the crash site of United Flight 93 near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The Memorial is expected to open in 2011 on the 10th anniversary of 9/11.

November 13, 2009 - U.S. Attorney General, Eric Holder, announces the trial of five Guantanamo Bay detainees with alleged ties to the 9/11 conspiracy, including accused mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed.

December 1, 2009 - President Barack Obama announces the planned deployment of an additional 30,000 U.S. troops to Afghanistan, to take place of the next six months.

December 25, 2009 - A Nigerian national, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, attempts to blow up a U.S. passenger airline from Amsterdam, Netherlands bound for Detroit, Michigan. He was overpowered by passengers after the device hidden in his underwear failed to explode and caught fire instead.

January 24, 2010 - In an audiotape allegedly from Osama Bin Laden to President Barack Obama, Bin Laden claims responsibility for an attempt to blow up a U.S. airplane on route to Michigan on Christmas Day 2009, and warns the U.S. of more attacks.

April 20, 2010 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq reaches 4,392.

May 1, 2010 - Faisal Shahzad, a Pakistani-born U.S. citzen, attempts to set off a car bomb in Times Square, New York City. No one was harmed.

May 3, 2010 - Shahzad is arrested at JFK International Airport on board a plane attempting to leave the U.S.

May 25, 2010 - U.S. troop level in Afghanistan reaches 94,000, surpassing those in Iraq for the first time since Saddam Hussein was ousted. The level is expected to peak later in the year at about 98,000.

May 28, 2010 - The death toll of U.S. troops in Afghanistan reaches 1,000.

August 31, 2010 - President Barack Obama declares an end to combat missions in Iraq.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Tenth year after 9/11

May 1, 2011 - Osama Bin Laden is killed by U.S. Special Forces (Navy SEALs) in a secret raid on his compound in Pakistan.

June 22, 2011 - President Obama announces that 10,000 U.S. troops would be withdrawn from Afghanistan by the end of 2011. An additional 23,000 troops are scheduled to leave the country by the summer of 2012.

August 6, 2011 - 31 U.S. Special Operations troops, mostly members of the elite Navy SEALs, including seven Afghan commandos, are killed in a helicopter crash in eastern Afghanistan. The lost Navy SEALs are part of the same unit, but not the same team, that took out Osama Bin Laden earlier in the year. The crash is the deadliest single incident for the U.S. since the war in Afghanistan began.

August 31, 2011 - U.S. Army General David Petraeus (four-star) officially retires after 37 years of distinguished service in the U.S. military, most recently as commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan. Prior to his 19-month term in Afghanistan, he served as head of U.S. Central Command helping to oversee the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The soon-to-be civilian will go on to assume the role of C.I.A. Director after he was earlier nominated by President Obama.

September 11, 2011 - The United States marks the 10th Year Anniversary of the historic and tragic events of September 11, 2001. Nationally televised memorial events are held in New York City, the Pentagon, Virginia, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Numerous other memorial ceremonies are also held across the nation. The National 9/11 Memorial (in New York City) is temporarily open to families of victims of 9/11. The United Flight 93 Memorial in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, is commemorated and officially opened to the general public after a dedication ceremony on September 10, 2011.

9-11 10th Year Anniversary - Ten plus years after 9/11

September 12, 2011 - The National 9/11 Memorial is officially opened to the general public.  It consists of one-acre (each) twin reflective pools built on the exact location of the bases of the World Trade Center towers. The names of each person who died in the 2001 and the 1993 World Trade Center attacks are inscribed iinto bronze panels that line both pools.

September 30, 2011 - Al-Qaeda's Anwar al Awlaki, a U.S. born Yemen-based terrorist responsible for numerous terror plots against Americans, including the failed attempt to bring down a U.S. commercial jet over Detroit in December 2009, is killed in a U.S. drone attack in Yemen.

October 7, 2011 - The 10th year anniversary of Operation Enduring Freedom, the beginning of the war in Afghanistan, in direct response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The anniversary passes quietly with minimal mention by government officials. Over 1,800 U.S. soldiers have died due to the war in Afghanistan over the past decade.

October 21, 2011 - President Barack Obama announces the complete withdrawal of U.S. combat troops from Iraq by the end of the year (2011). The withdrawal excludes a small team of military personnel that will remain to protect the U.S. embassy in Baghdad, Iraq. The announcement comes 8 years and 7 months after the start of operation Iraqi Freedom led by the United States.

December 15, 2011 - The United States officially ends its military mission in Iraq. The event was marked by a simple, but meaningful, ceremony led by Defense Secretary Leon Panetta at the Baghdad airport (Iraq). With the exception of a small force to protect the U.S. embassy all U.S. troops are expected to be out of Iraq by the end of December (2011). The nearly nine year war has claimed the lives of almost 4,500 U.S. soldiers and has resulted in over 30,000 wounded. An estimated 100,000 Iraqi lives have also been lost during the conflict.

December 18, 2011 - The last convoy of U.S soldiers leave Iraq after crossing into Kuwait, thus completing the withdrawal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq.

February 1, 2012 - The United States announces that combat operations in Afghanistan will end in 2013 and that the U.S. would transition to a support role, including training and advisory, at that time. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta maintains that the revised schedule is consistent with a previously established 2014 timetable.

April 22, 2012 - The United States and Afghanistan announce completion of the draft of a strategic partnership agreement that pledges American support for Afghanistan for a period of ten years after the 2014 scheduled withdrawal of U.S. combat forces. The landmark agreement is expected to be signed by President Barack Obama and President Hamid Karzai of the United States and Afghanistan, respectively, in the coming weeks.

May 1, 2012 - During a surprise visit to Afghanistan, and on the first year anniversary of the death of bin Laden, President Barack Obama signs a strategic partnership agreement between the United States and Afghanistan. President Hamid Karzai also signs the landmark agreement, which was finalized in late April, on behalf of his nation (Afghanistan). The agreement charts a course for U.S.-Afghanistan relationship beyond 2014 after U.S. combat forces leave Afghanistan.

September 11, 2012 - As the United States observes the 11th anniversary of the events of 9/11, terrorists launch a planned attack on the U.S. consulate office in Benghazi, Libya killing four Americans including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens. The deadly assault marks the first successful terrorist attack on a U.S. target on an anniversary of the events of 9/11. The 11th anniversary was also marked by violent anti-American protests at the U.S. embassy in Cairo, Egypt.

October 10, 2012 - The United States Congress holds a House Oversight Committee hearing to learn of the events that led up to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2012 at the U.S. consulate office in Benghazi, Libya, that killed four Americans including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens. Several former and current State Department officials were called to testify.

November 6, 2012 - Amid controversy over the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2012 (the 11th anniversary of the events of 9/11), at the U.S. consulate office in Benghazi, Libya that killed four Americans including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, President Barack H. Obama is re-elected President of the United States.

November 9, 2012 - General (Retired) David H. Petraeus resigns as director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.) less than 14 months after he assumed the office. His resignation comes amid revelation of an ongoing F.B.I. investigation into security concerns regarding his recent involvement in an extramarital affair.

November 15, 2012 - U. S. Congressional hearings resume on Capitol Hill into the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2012 at the U.S. consulate office in Benghazi, Libya that killed four Americans including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens. The hearings include House and Senate Intelligence Committee classified (closed-door) sessions with high level U.S. intelligence agencies personnel. The hearings also seek to determine the facts and reasons behind the dissemination of false information, about the cause of the terrorist attacks in Benghazi, to the American public during the weeks following the attack.

December 18, 2012 - The U. S. State Department releases its Accountability Review Board report into the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2012 at the U.S. consulate office in Benghazi, Libya that killed four Americans including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens. The unclassified version of the report confirms that no protest preceded the attacks, contrary to the claims previously made by the Obama Administration. Also, the report concludes that 'systemic failures' left the consulate inadequately protected and that 'leadership and management deficiencies at senior levels within two bureaus' contributed to the security failures leading up to the attacks. The report also suggests 29 ways that the State Department can improve its operations, but recommended no disciplinary actions.

January 11, 2013 - During a White House visit President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan meets with President Barack Obama to discuss U.S. troop activities in Afghanistan, U.S. troop presence in Afghanistan beyond 2014, as well as a host of other issues. President Obama announces early transition of U.S. troop activities, from a combat role to a support and assist role, starting in the coming spring season. He also confirms that the U.S. troop level beyond 2014 is yet to be determined.

January 16, 2013 - Islamic extremist terrorists associated with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) mount a coordinated attack at a gas processing plant in the North African country of Algeria. The terrorists hold a number of plant workers, including several foreigners, hostage.

January 19, 2013 - Algerian military special forces mount a second and decisive rescue mission, after an initial attempt on January 17, to free more hostages held by Islamic extremist terrorists that attacked workers at a gas processing plant in the country. 29 terrorists are killed by the Algerian forces and 37 hostages turn up dead at the hands of the terrorists by the end of the rescue mission. Three Americans are among the dead hostages, along with several foreign workers from at least seven other countries that include Japan, Norway, Romania, and the United Kingdom.

January 23, 2013 - U.S. State Department Secretary, Hillary Clinton, testifies before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee on the terrorist attacks on Septemer 11, 2012 in Benghazi, Libya that killed four Americans, including U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens. The two hearings leave many questions unanswered, to the dis-satisfaction of many in Congress.

February 1, 2013 - U.S. Senator John Kerry, from Massachusetts, is sworn in as the new U.S. State Department Secretary, replacing outgoing Secretary Hillary Clinton. Senator Kerry becomes the 68th U.S. Secretary of State after receiving a 94-3 confirmation vote in the U.S. Senate earlier in the week.

February 27, 2013 - Fomer U.S. Senator Chuck Hagel, from Nebraska, is sworn in as the new U.S. Department of Defense Secretary, replacing outgoing Secretary Leon Panetta. Mr. Hagel becomes the 24th U.S. Secretary of Defense after receiving a 58-41 confirmation vote in the U.S. Senate a day earlier.

March 8, 2013 - John Brennan is sworn in as the new Director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.), replacing retired General David Petraeus who resigned on November 9, 2012. Mr. Brennan was the former Chief Counterterrorism Advisor to President Barack Obama, brings 25 years of prior experience with the C.I.A., and becomes the 21st Director of the intelligence agency after receiving a 63-34 confirmation vote in the U.S. Senate a day earlier.

April 15, 2013 - At about 2:49 PM EST, in a domestic act of terror, two Americans (19-year-old and 26-year-old brothers), whose family had immigrated as refugees from Russia in 2002, launch a planned and coordinated improvised explosives bombing assault on spectators watching runners near the finish line at the annual Boston Marathon world class event in Boston, Massachusetts. The bombing involves dual explosions, about 13 seconds and 210 yards apart, amid two separate crowds of spectators. The dual explosions kill three by-standers and injures over 180 other people watching the race. The assault marks the first successful terrorist attack on U.S. soil since the events of September 11, 2001.

April 18, 2013 - At about 10:40 PM EST, while on the run from law enforcement authorities, the two alleged Boston Marathon bombing suspect brothers ambush a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, campus police officer in his law enforcement vehicle in an apparent multiple gunshot execution.

April 19, 2013 - Law enforcement authorities arrest the second of two brothers, 19-year-old Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, alleged to have been part of the mastermind behind the April 15, 2013 Boston Marathon terror attack. The injured suspect is captured in Watertown, Massachusetts, a day after a car chase and gun fight with authorities that ended in the death of his 26-year-old brother and co-mastermind, Tamerlan Tsarnaev. He is taken to a Boston-area hospital and kept under heavy security guard.

September 11, 2013 - The United States marks the 12th Year Anniversary of the historic and tragic events of September 11, 2001. Memorial events are held in New York City, at the Pentagon, Virginia, in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, as well as various cities and towns across the country. This day also marks the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks on the U.S. consulate and annex in Benghazi, Libya that killed U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and three other Americans. The perpetrators of that attack remain unapprehended.


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